227 in July 1942, which directed that those retreating unauthorised would be placed in "penal battalions" used as cannon fodder on the front lines. [430] He also initiated "national operations", the ethnic cleansing of non-Soviet ethnic groups—among them Poles, Germans, Latvians, Finns, Greeks, Koreans, and Chinese—through internal or external exile.

[169] Lenin began calling for the Bolsheviks to seize power by toppling the Provisional Government in a coup d'état. [914] He repeated these denunciations at the 22nd Party Congress in October 1962. [611] It was aimed for economic autarky within the Eastern Bloc. It is hard for me to reconcile the courtesy and consideration he showed me personally with the ghastly cruelty of his wholesale liquidations.

Others, who did not know him personally, see only the tyrant in Stalin. [926] Polling by the Levada Center suggest Stalin's popularity has grown since 2015, with 46% of Russians expressing a favourable view of him in 2017 and 51% in 2019. [126] After two months, Stalin and Sverdlov escaped back to Saint Petersburg.

There were mass expulsions from the party,[426] with Stalin commanding foreign communist parties to also purge anti-Stalinist elements. [218] The Polish-Soviet War ended on 18 March 1921, when a peace treaty was signed in Riga. [537] Roosevelt and Churchill conceded to Stalin's demand that Germany pay the Soviet Union 20 billion dollars in reparations, and that his country be permitted to annex Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in exchange for entering the war against Japan. Joseph Stalin height is 163 cm (5 ft 4.17 in). [911], Shortly after his death, the Soviet Union went through a period of de-Stalinization. [670], Stalin claimed to have embraced Marxism at the age of fifteen,[674] and it served as the guiding philosophy throughout his adult life;[675] according to Kotkin, Stalin held "zealous Marxist convictions",[676] while Montefiore suggested that Marxism held a "quasi-religious" value for Stalin. [422] The second Moscow Show Trial took place in January 1937,[423] and the third in March 1938, in which Bukharin and Rykov were accused of involvement in the alleged Trotskyite-Zinovievite terrorist plot and sentenced to death. [400], Seeking improved international relations, in 1934 the Soviet Union secured membership of the League of Nations, of which it had previously been excluded. [336] In November 1929 Stalin removed him from the Politburo. [600] He erroneously claimed that the initial German advance in the early part of the war was not a result of Soviet military weakness, but rather a deliberate Soviet strategic retreat. [552] At the conference, Stalin repeated previous promises to Churchill that he would refrain from a "Sovietization" of Eastern Europe.

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